Common Cylindrical Grinding Defects. Cylindrical grinding machine

Surface Cylindrical Grinding Machines

Paul brings 38 years experience to WMW. After a 2 year curriculum in machine trades, he entered the US Air Force as an aircraft metals technology specialist, supporting Air Force operations, including Desert Storm, through machining, welding and heat treatment practices. After leaving the Air Force, he continued his machinist career in the private sector and worked for over 20 years in Virginia. He primarily served the maritime industry of Hampton Roads, working on various projects, including the Seawolf submarine onboard torpedo handling system, as well as underwater warfare prototypes, and shipbuilding support. Staying current along the way with advancements in technology has always been important to him, but doing so on a foundation of tried and true theory and technique.

Paul has been with WMW 8 years and currently serves on the engineering team as Special Process Engineer, primarily handling a multitude of unique, complex large scale jobs on various horizontal boring mills. He interacts with customers on a daily basis, cultivating lasting business relationships of trust and commitment. Paul also generates work orders and monitors important logistical information as part of his additional duties.

In his off time, he enjoys relaxing in the backyard with his wife, Terri, perfecting recipes on his BBQ pit. He also enjoys scuba diving offshore wrecks and looks forward to expanding to more technical dives as well as spearfishing in the near future.

Greig Lane

VP of Manufacturing Operations

Greig has over 40 years of experience in manufacturing, including tool and die apprenticeship. He started his career as a Job Shop Machinist dealing with special one-of-a-kind parts, then expanded his skill set to welding (Tig ,Mig, Stick). As a team leader, he is responsible for machine maintenance, safety, commercial proposals, customer service and project management of both internal and external projects. In summary, Greig has held several key positions at Winterville Machine Works for over 38 years.

Greig graduated from Cape Fear Technical Institute (Cape Fear Community College), the Machine Trades and Wake Technical College (Wake Technical Community College), with a specialty in Tool and Die Practices. Greig was born and raised in Eastern North Carolina. His hobbies include building projects, with steel or wood. He has been blessed with his wife for 39 years and have raised together three children. He is a proud to say he has four grandchildren (his pride and joy).

Michelle Renee Lamm

HR / Account Payable

Ms. Lamm brings over 41 years of experience in accounting/finance, human resources, and insurance management. As the Accounts Payable leader for WMW, Ms. Lamm strives to make sure all vendors are paid correctly and on time. As the Human Resources Leader, she works hard to keep our employees equipped with the necessary support so they can work at a high performance level to keep our customers satisfied and delighted; while maintaining all required documents for Federal and State reporting. Ms. Lamm’s role includes ensuring the accuracy of labor hours claimed, for processing payroll. She loves spending time with her children and grandchildren. Ms. Lamm plays handbells for her church and enjoys helping those in need. Her other hobbies include weaving baskets, making handmade quilts, canning, visiting the mountains and her family. She was a Volunteer Firefighter and Medical Responder for 9.5 years in Wilson, NC.

Joyce Miller

Joyce has over 47 years of professional work experience. She started her career with Winterville Machine Works in 1994 as a receptionist and in payroll, then moved up the ranks, taking on additional responsibilities in personnel, accounts receivables, and forecasting. Outside of work Joyce enjoys spending time with her family, especially her five grandchildren. She also enjoys going to Ocean Isle Beach to be with her extended family. She is also an active member of her church.

Hammad Hussain

President CEO

Hammad is an accomplished and results-oriented leader with 22 years of professional experience across the globe in manufacturing and construction industries serving Stantec, URS/AECOM, GE, ABB and Honeywell where he rose through corporate ranks by doing several roles in multiple industrial businesses (power generation, water wastewater treatment, renewables, electrical distribution, fire protection). He has demonstrated his capabilities by leading growth initiatives and managing complex businesses profitably globally, both organically and inorganically.

In 2021, Hammad founded a family-owned Trivor Industrial Group with an aim of building a portfolio of great component manufacturing companies for the long haul. Hammad, a US citizen, is married and has lived and worked in the US, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East, and North Africa. He is an avid fan of cricket, soccer and tennis and currently distributes his time between Atlanta, GA and Greenville, NC. He actively participates in several charity activities, especially for orphans. Hammad holds a BS in Civil Engineering from University of Engineering Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, a MS degree in Civil Environmental Engineering from Colorado State University and an M.B.A from Columbia Business School.

Kevin Nelson

Manufacturing Process Engineering Leader

Kevin has over 42 years of experience in manufacturing process and design. He started his career at Winterville Machine Works as a second shift Numerical Control machine operator. Then worked his way up the ranks, expanding his skill set on the proper use of precision hand tools, gages, indicators, micrometer. Kevin has been fully trained and certified in conventional and computerized machining, including the setup and operation of manual lathes and mills; horizontal and vertical CNC machines. Kevin is our leader of the Manufacturing Design and Review Team, with a FOCUS on concept creation, design to final development of complex part fixtures. He also leads our efforts with enhancing workflows for increased efficiencies and exceeding work safety standards. Kevin attended East Carolina University, with a specialization in Industrial Technology. He is our in-house expert on Smart Cam, Auto Desk, Solid Works, Gibbs CAM, BOB CAD CAM, and Predator CNC Editor Training. Kevin is also certified in Total Quality Management from Pitt Community College, Advanced Product Quality Planning, from, Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, Production Part Approval Process from North Carolina State University. In his spare time, Kevin enjoys fishing and boating with his wife.

James Williams

Production / Fabrication General Manager

James has over 36 years of experience in welding and metal fabrication. James has been with Winterville Machine Works for 22 years. James graduated from Beaufort Community College and James Sprunt Community College, where he specialized in welding and machine shop practice and theory. He is married to Lisa Williams and has been married for over 31 years. They have three daughters, four granddaughters, and two grandsons. James enjoys spending quality time with his family, traveling overseas, and competing in offshore fishing.

Jerry Stotesbury

Product Management Quality Assurance Manager

common, cylindrical, grinding, defects, machine

Jerry has over 35 years of experience in the design and fabrication of marine products. He has worked with our customers to successfully produce many complex prototype structures. Many customers go to Jerry for his engineering expertise to resolve both manufacturing methodology that impact the quality and life of the marine products. He holds an AS degree in Architectural drafting and has over 30 years of experience with AutoCad and SolidWorks software. Jerry likes to spend time with his family, which comprises of his wife of 31 years, a daughter, and two sons. Jerry is an avid outdoorsman spending time on the water and in the field fishing and hunting.

John Fleming

Manufacturing, Plating Engineering Leader

John Fleming has over 28 years of experience in manufacturing of components for power generation, large equipment, that require very tight tolerances. He is one of our most experienced machinists, with expertise in CNC programming, manufacturing process engineering, welding, and fabrication. John has held many positions in his first 21 years of his career in the Power Generation Industry, including the responsibility of managing different operation and commercial departments towards topline revenue growth, before joining the WMW team in 2013. John was born and raised in Eastern North Carolina, and his two main passions are fishing and hunting. He especially loves just being out on the water, rather it is ducking hunting or fishing, and just seeing the sunrise every morning over the Pamlico Sound. John is also very passionate about training his labrador for duck hunting.

Mike Tyson

Production Manager

Mike has over 40 years of extensive experience in the manufacturing and machining business. He started his career in 1981 at Winterville Machine Works as an apprentice machinist. With the company expanding and focusing on more high production CNC machines, Mike took the initiative to begin studying and training on CNC equipment. He excelled as CNC operator, setting up CNC machines, proving out programs and writing programs. From there, he moved into leadership, holding positions of Team Leader, Quality Manager, and presently as Production Manager. As Quality manager, Mike helped to establish and maintain ISO 9001 standards and certifications. Mike graduated from Pitt Community College. His areas of formation included blueprint reading, machine shop practices, and machine shop maintenance. Mike has several hobbies which include fishing, hunting, and kart racing.

Dixon Page

Quality Manager

Dixon brings over 30 years of experience in machining and checking components to blueprint specifications as well as the calibration of instruments and gages that are used in these processes. Dixon works with statistical data to assure machining processes are capable and produce parts that exceed customer expectations. He graduated from D.H. Conley in 1982 and received a 2 year machining degree from Pitt Community College in 1984. Before joining Winterville Machine Works, Dixon worked at Simpson Industries/Metaldyne Corporation for 22 years, five years as a machine operator, and 17 years as a quality technician. During the past 14 years at Winterville Machine Works, Dixon moved up the ranks, starting as a quality technician, then recently accepting the promotion to Quality Manager. Dixon loves spending time with his family, especially his grandchildren, as much as possible. He also loves to hunt and fish during his leisure time as well as traveling with his wife.

Troy Bullock

Purchasing Manager

Mr. Bullock has over 36 years of quality assurance and procurement experience for manufacturing, in the automotive, marine, and heavy construction equipment industries. His main role at Winterville Machine Works is to acquire appropriate high quality material at the most cost-effective price for the end customer. Mr. Bullock’s prior positions at Winterville Machine Works include being a tool crib MRP buyer, and the main procurement lead of tooling supplies and services for the facility. Earlier in his career, he was a CNC operator in the automotive manufacturing industry and then worked up the ranks to becoming a Quality Technician to ensure customers were receiving products per blueprint specifications. From there, he became a Quality Technician Leader coordinating the performance of three Quality Technicians. became a Process Control Supervisor. Lastly, he was a Process Technician Supervisor, tracking continuous improvement projects, process studies, and training the workforce on improvement techniques.

Mr. Bullock has been certified in Kaizen and QS-9000 Auditing, and he has a Machinist Associate Degree from Martin Community College. Mr. Bullock’s passion is spending quality time with his family, especially his grandson. He also enjoys horseback riding, fishing, and restoring antique tractors.

Peter Garza

Chief Commercial Officer

Mr. Garza brings with him over 20 years of business-to-business marketing, business development, dealer development, and service operations experience. He has implemented these skill sets in the mining, heavy construction, marine, transportation, power generation, agriculture, healthcare, and financial sectors. He is an award-winning marketer, which includes winning the coveted Oracle Global Markie Award winner for Digital Marketing and Demand Generation, and being a finalist for both the SiriusDecisions Return of Integration (ROI) Demand Generation and the Marketo Revvie Awards.

Over the years, Mr. Garza has held several top-line revenue growth executive positions. He was vice president of marketing at a few startups, such as InTouch Health, the leading telemedicine solutions provider, recently acquired by Teladoc for 1 Billion. Prior to that, Garza was the vice president of demand generation and digital marketing for MedAssets, Inc., a 2.7 billion (market cap) revenue cycle management and supply/clinical resource management healthcare company. At MedAssets, he built out perpetual demand generation engine programs, delivering over 118 million of pipeline within 18 months, which turned into 41 million of incremental revenue. Garza was the director of channel marketing for AGCO Corporation, a 10 billion agriculture manufacturer, where he modernized its marketing programs, processes, and technology stack, delivering over 288 million in the pipeline. Earlier in his career, Garza held several senior leadership positions at Caterpillar, in marketing, distribution development, product management, product support, and supply chain management. He won Caterpillar’s annual President’s Quality Award, beating out over 5,000 other projects, for an effective go-to-market strategy and super high growth new product introduction project, that generated over 220 million of incremental revenue, in just over two years.

His passion includes raising his son and daughter, watching his son play in the marching Band and his daughter competing in lacrosse and tennis. He plays alto saxophone at his church and volunteers at Meals on Wheels of Atlanta, Atlanta Trees, and Habitat for Humanity. His other hobbies include expanding / maintaining his gun collection and playing both singles and doubles league tennis. In 2020, he was ranked #1 in Atlanta’s Ultimate Men’s Single 5.0 tennis league. Peter holds a Business of Science in mechanical engineering from Florida International University and an MBA from the University of Miami, where he was selected as Salutatorian.

Common Cylindrical Grinding Defects

An essential step in many manufacturing processes is cylindrical grinding, the process of using abrasive grinding to remove material from a workpiece. Various industries use cylindrical grinding machines, from automotive and aerospace to military and information technology. These machines shape pieces like cylinders, pistons and pins to suit the desired form and function.

Although cylindrical grinding machines are helpful and simplistic, problems can still occur during manufacturing. Preventing grinding problems is critical for ensuring production accuracy and avoiding damage to the cylindrical grinding machine.

Below are the most common grinding defects and how you can solve them.

Workpiece Is Burnt or Cracked

Burnt and cracked workpieces are two common grinding defects that can produce inaccurate work. Grinding burn is when a workpiece receives thermal damage from an incorrect grinding process that releases excessive heat into the workpiece. This occurrence simulates the tempering process on the material. The piece can crack if the part experiences a high enough level of force. Grinding burn may also cause mechanical part failure.

Fortunately, manufacturers can take several steps to prevent grinding burn and cracking. The solutions for a burnt or cracked workpiece include:

  • Use an adequate amount of cooling lubricant: A sufficient supply of cooling lubricant in the grinding zone is vital for preventing grinding burn. The coolant jet stream should have 30-50% of the circumferential speed of the grinding wheel.
  • Ensure the wheel abrasiveness suits the material: Select a softer grade wheel or one with a more open structure to avoid putting too much tensile stress on the workpiece.
  • Balance the wheel: An imbalanced wheel could grind parts on the workpiece unevenly. Check the balancing stand level to determine whether you need to balance the wheel.
  • Improve the grinding operation: High infeed of the workpiece and material removal rate could also lead to grinding burn. Try reducing the wheel infeed rate and increasing the wheel traverse rate.

Grinder Is Making Noise

When the grinder starts making noise, this is called chatter. Chatter can be challenging to detect and is often only noticeable during an inspection of your cylindrical grinding machine. Often, chatter appears as visible, regularly-spaced wave marks on the workpiece and indicates a vibration issue.

The wavelength of these marks can indicate specific problems that are to blame:

  • Long wavelengths: Work speeds that are too high could create long wavelengths along the workpiece.
  • Smaller wavelengths: Lower work speeds might lead to smaller waves.

If you notice chatter during your cylindrical grinding operation, it might be due to one of these common causes:

  • Heavy grinding wheel: If the wheel is too heavy for the material, slow down your infeed or traverse feed.
  • Hard grinding wheel: Use a softer wheel or decrease the wheel spindle to make the wheel act softer.
  • Vibrating machine: Ensure the blade is clamped correctly, rebalance the wheel and check to see whether you need to replace the belt.
  • Wheel flanges: If the vibration frequency is the same as the rotation speed of the grinding spindle, the issue is probably with the wheel flanges or grinding spindle. Try tightening the wheel flanges or adjusting the spindle bearings.

Workpiece Inaccuracy

Cylindrical grinding requires high precision for accurate grinding. When the cylindrical grinding operation doesn’t meet the requirements and the workpiece is set incorrectly, workpieces can be inaccurate. The most common cause of workpiece inaccuracy is an incorrect setup, which causes grinding problems with the centerless grinder.

Here are a few possible causes of workpiece inaccuracy:

  • Poor wheel dressing: The grinding and regulating wheels should be dressed to match the workpiece’s desired cut.
  • Faulty grinding operation: The angle of contact with the grinding wheel can make the part lose its cylindricity.
  • Incorrect work centers: The workpiece must be high enough above the center to prevent workpiece inaccuracy. If a workpiece is set too low, it may be out of round.
  • Unsuitable wheel specification: Grinding wheels should suit the part’s type of metal and the desired finish.

Some of the best cylindrical grinding troubleshooting tips for workpiece inaccuracy include the following:

  • Rebalance your workpiece: When cylindrical grinding troubleshooting, start by rebalancing the workpiece to ensure the work center holes align.
  • Use a softer grade wheel: A softer grade wheel might work better for the type of metal you’re using.
  • Maintain contact: Keep constant contact between the wheel and the work edge.
  • Keep a steady rest position: The work blade and regulatory wheel should be at the correct angles to prevent the workpiece from entering too far into the grinding zone.

Scratches or Spirals on the Workpiece

One of the most common cylindrical grinding problems is the presence of fine spirals or scratches on the workpiece, making the surface uneven. These imperfections come in several types, including:

  • A thread pattern corresponding to the feed rate
  • Angular marks in a screw pattern
  • Irregular, short scratches shaped like commas
  • Chatter marks over the part’s circumference
  • Flat marks scattered over the workpiece
  • A mirror-like finish
  • Spiraled yellow or brown burn marks

Common causes of scratches or spirals include:

  • Improper work support blades that are too hard on the part material
  • Improper grinding wheel operation
  • Incorrect wheel dressing or shedding
  • Unsuitable wheel type, which could be too coarse or soft

If you experience scratches and spirals on your workpieces, try one of these fixes:

  • Change the blade: Switch out the work blade for one that’s a softer material.
  • Reduce the wheel pressure: Reduce the grinding wheel pressure during operation to avoid exerting excess force.
  • Round the wheel edges: Round the wheel edges to repair faulty dressing.
  • Dress the wheel: Using a slower traverse rate to dress the wheel, dressing the wheel parallel to the workpiece or replacing the wheel with a harder grade or finer grit may solve the issue. Make the final dressing in the opposite direction of the initial runs, then flush the wheel with coolant after dressing to clean it.

Wheel Glazing

Wheel glazing is an issue with the cylindrical grinding process where the wheel wears down over time. A glazed wheel develops a smooth and shiny appearance and is too blunt to grind accurately. This cylindrical grinding problem could be caused by:

  • Unsuitable wheel specification: Often, glazing happens when a wheel has too hard a grade for the part.
  • Incorrect wheel dressing: If the dressing leaves scale, grinding could dull the wheel grains.
  • Poor quality coolant: Cylindrical grinding machines need the correct quantity and quality of coolant.
  • Faulty operation: Harder wheel acts often lead to wheel glazing.
  • Slow stock removal: During in-feed grinding, slow stock removal can lead to dulling of the wheel.

To solve wheel glazing, try these solutions:

  • Use the correct wheel specification: Talk to the grinding wheel manufacturer to determine which type of wheel works best with your specific project.
  • Clean the parts: Always clean the wheel and workpiece before grinding to remove any buildup.
  • Use the correct coolant: Use a coolant with increased lubricity and increase the flow.
  • Increase the in-feed rate: This strategy removes stock faster.

Choose Randbright Cylindrical Finishing Machines From Timesavers

Another way to improve your operation is with an efficient cylindrical grinding machine from Randbright. Randbright machines deliver simplicity and high quality, so you know your production line is getting the best of the best. Our series of Randbright cylindrical grinding machines use advanced technology for effective cylindrical grinding so you can increase production accuracy and speed in even the most precise application.

At Timesavers, we offer a variety of cylindrical grinding machines to suit your application and a dedicated service team to provide maintenance on any product. Contact a Timesavers representative to learn more about how our machines can improve your cylindrical grinding operation.

Cylindrical Grinding

Hello! Our today’s topic is Cylindrical Grinder.

Come; let us learn something about Cylindrical Grinding and the machines which are used for doing it.

What is Cylindrical Grinding?

Cylindrical Grinding is a process where you use a grinding wheel rotating in a horizontal axis to cut or grind a cylindrical work-piece mounted on a chuck or between centers rotating in an axis parallel to the grinding wheel axis, in the same plane.

Abrasive particles on the grinding wheel do the cutting of material.

Why do we use Cylindrical Grinding?

Your objective of doing cylindrical grinding is-

  • To get a good surface finish.
  • Geometrical accuracy like concentricity between two or more diameters on a shaft or between the bore and outside diameter of a cylindrical work-piece.
  • Most importantly, to machine the hardened work-piece for which grinding is the only machining process.

How Cylindrical Grinding works?

Your Cylindrical Grinding Machine consists of a grinding wheel rotating in a horizontal axis and a circular work-piece rotating in an axis parallel to the grinding wheel axis in the same plane.

To start the grinding process, you have to feed the work-piece to the rotating grinding wheel, in a reciprocating motion. You can give the depth of cut by moving the grinding wheel head towards the work-piece. Abrasive particles on the grinding wheel do the cutting action.

The surface (peripheral) speed of the work-piece is much less in comparison with the surface speed of the grinding wheel.

Your grinding cycle normally consists of one or two rough cuts followed by wheel dressing and a fine finish cut.

You can give a depth of cut of 30 to 80 microns during rough grinding (1 micron=0.001 millimeter) depending on the work-piece hardness and a finish cut of 10-20 microns.

Types of Cylindrical Grinding Machines.

Other Types

Come!! Join me in the exploration of Cylindrical Grinders.

External Cylindrical Grinders.

Your External Cylindrical grinder consists of a bed mounted on a base, and the lower table is mounted on the bed and has reciprocating movement in the X axis on the bed guide-ways.

The upper table of your machine is mounted on the lower table and can be swiveled in the longitudinal plane.

Head Stock of your machine (which can be swiveled in some designs) with the drive system for the work-piece and tailstock with a dead center are mounted on the upper table.

You can move the tailstock along the table length and lock at the position required.

The wheel-head of your machine (which can be swiveled in some designs), with an independent motor, is mounted on the bed and moves in the transverse direction (towards or away from the work-piece) for giving depth of cut.

Your machine has a coolant system to flood the cutting area during grinding.

The reciprocating movement of the table of your machine, in the longitudinal (X) axis is hydraulic and the table speed is infinitely variable. You can change the speed of the table movement or stop the movement by using the lever.

There are two movable stoppers on the front of your machine table and they can be moved and locked at any position; the hydraulic valve for reversing the direction of the table’s reciprocating movement is in between these two stoppers and during grinding, the stopper on the moving table strikes the hydraulic valve to reverse the direction.

You have to position the two stoppers in such a way that the table movement is reversed as soon as the work-piece length passes the grinding wheel.

You can synchronize the predetermined depth of cut with the table direction reversal.

Your External Cylindrical Grinding is also called ‘center type’ grinding since external cylindrical grinding work-pieces are shafts with precision centers on both faces and are mounted between centers (with a drive carrier) during grinding.

You can grind the outside diameters (OD) of long or short shafts, with single or multi- diameters and also with tapers. You can maintain the concentricity of all the diameters and tapers on the shaft within the tolerance

You can do the following grinding operations on your cylindrical grinder with concentricity between the different diameters and taper.

  • Plane grinding of a single diameter long shaft by feeding the work-piece against the grinding wheel by table reciprocating movement.
  • Do plunge grinding of diameter (length of the diameter to be ground is less than the width of the grinding wheel), by directly plunging the grinding wheel into the work-piece.
  • Grind Multi diameter long shaft with a combination of plunge and plane grinding.
  • Do taper grinding over the length of the work-piece by tilting the table and plunge grinding of short taper by tilting the wheel head.

Your External Cylindrical Grinder can be of the manual type or a semi / fully automatic type where the feed, depth of cut, and wheel dressing happens in auto mode.

Your machine may have a built-in wheel dresser.

Your External Cylindrical Grinder may have an internal grinding attachment and such machines are called Universal Cylindrical Grinders.

To make the External Cylindrical Grinder more productive, you can have many variants that are specific to the type of grinding required.

  • Plain Cylindrical Grinder for grinding long shafts with one or two diameters and taper.
  • Plunge grinder for plunge grinding of small length diameters on a shaft.
  • Plunge grinding of journal diameters on a crankshaft, with the built-in special fixture. This machine may be called ‘Crankshaft Grinder”.

The above variants of your External Cylindrical Grinder are not versatile, but they are more productive.

If you have a work-piece with a large diameter and short length (without centers on the face) you can use the chuck (three jaws or four jaws chuck) for clamping. You can grind the outside diameter of such work-pieces by truing the OD of the work-piece or its bore (if there is a bore).

Internal Cylindrical Grinders

You use Internal Cylindrical Grinders to grind the bore (internal diameter) in a work-piece and the bore can be either straight or tapered or a groove.

Your Internal Cylindrical Grinder has a cast-iron bed mounted on a cast-iron or cement base. Further, your machine has a horizontal work-head with a spindle and a grinding wheel-head; the work-head and the wheel-head have their own motors.

The reciprocating motion and transverse motion in your machine, for feed and depth of cut, are normally given to the grinding wheel-head; however, in some designs, it may be with the work-head of your machine.

The reciprocating motion of the wheel-head and reversal of direction in your machine can be similar to the External Cylindrical Grinder.

You can swivel the work-head for doing taper grinding operation.

Your machine has a coolant system to flood the cutting area during grinding.

Your machine will have a built-in wheel dresser.

You can mount the work-piece on a chuck (three or four jaws), magnetic chuck or, a special fixture. You can do plane internal grinding, taper internal grinding, plunge type internal grinding of grooves, and face grinding.

The direction of rotation of your grinding wheel and the work-piece at the point of contact is normally opposing to each other.

You have to verify the internal-grinding wheel chart to select the size and type of the grinding wheel which depends on the size of the bore to be ground work-piece material.

Your Internal Cylindrical Grinder can be of the manual type or a semi / fully automatic type where the feed, depth of cut, and wheel dressing happens in auto mode.

You use Vertical Type Internal Cylindrical Grinder for internal grinding of large and heavy work-pieces. Your machine will have a rotary table for mounting the work-piece and a vertical wheel-head moving up and down. Your machine can have the cross-movement (depth of cut) with the wheel-head or the work table.

Tool and Cutter Grinders

As the name indicates, your Tool and Cutter Grinder is designed to sharpen the worn-out cutting tools viz. milling cutters, drills, broaches, hobs, etc.

Your machine is very versatile and has many attachments that are specifically used to grind or sharpen the concerned tools.

You must be highly skilled and have a good knowledge of tool geometry to work on this machine; many of the operations depend on operator judgement and skill.

Your machine is generally equipped with a grinding vice and other precision work holding devices. Your Tool and Cutter Grinder is a compact machine built for tool sharpening in the workshop.

Your machine can also be used to a limited extent to perform internal grinding, cylindrical grinding, and surface grinding operations and this versatility is mainly for grinding new raw tools.

You can make use of these features to grind small components if there is no load of tool sharpening.

CNC Cylindrical Grinders

Your CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Cylindrical Grinder is operated using CNC systems where the Grinder follows the step-by-step instructions given by the CNC system. You can feed the instructions into the CNC system either by directly using the system keyboard or design it offline on a Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/ Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) system and transfer it to the CNC system. Your CNC Cylindrical Grinder can start production, once you establish a trial component.

Unlike in your CNC turning or CNC milling, the grinding wheel in a CNC Cylindrical Grinder (or other types of CNC Grinder) needs dressing for the finish cut and dressing leads to a reduction in the grinding wheel diameter. Your machine will have an arrangement to auto measure and compensate by effecting necessary required corrections.

Your machine has a coolant system to flood the cutting area during grinding and a built-in wheel dresser.

The CNC system on your Cylindrical Grinder has closed-loop feedback and monitors the program continuously in real-time and implements corrections to ensure repetitive mass production of components.

You have learned about the types of Cylindrical Grinders and how the grinding is done by the movement of the table (holding the work-piece) and the wheel head.

In your CNC Cylindrical Grinder, the movements of the table and the wheel head are under the control of the CNC System. You can have any type of grinder machine with a CNC system.

Servo motors, Linear Motion (LM) guide-ways, and ball screws are used for the precise and accurate axial movement of the table or the wheel head in your CNC grinders.

The CNC System gives you the freedom to make the machine more productive because you can do more than one operation simultaneously and have a predetermined relative movement between the work-piece and the grinding wheel to generate intricate profiles.

For example, you can program to do external grinding and internal grinding simultaneously by having independent wheel heads for external grinding and internal grinding.

You can have an indexing type of wheel head carrying 4 different grinding wheels for executing external grinding, bore grinding, profile grinding, face grinding, etc. and you can program to do all the required grinding operations in a continuous sequence.

You can program your CNC Grinder for planned intermittent cuts on the work-piece where the grinding wheel head moves back and forth in a sequence to generate cam or any special profile. You can use a similar technique to generate concave or convex profiles.

The possibilities are infinite in your CNC Grinders and machines can be built depending on the grinding operations to be performed.

Your CNC grinder may have provision for wheel balancing.

Your CNC grinder may have two or more axes controlled by CNC.

You can find a typical 5-axis CNC controlled grinding machine, which apart from grinding, does milling, drilling, and tapping also; such CNC grinding machines having simultaneous movements in up to 5 or more axis are very useful in faster and precision manufacture of critical components for the aerospace industry.

Cylindrical Grinding Wheels

Your grinding wheel contains abrasive particles bonded into the shape by a bonding material, and it has a matrix of the following constituents:

Type of abrasive Aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride, and diamond (all these are manufactured abrasives). Aluminum oxide is a popular choice.
Grain size The grain size can be 8 (coarse) to 600 (fine).
Type of bond Vitrified, silicate, resinoid, shellac, and metallic bond. Vitrified bond is the most used.
Grade of the wheel The grade (also referred to as hardness) of the wheel and it can be A to Z, A is soft, M is medium and Z is hard.
Structure of the wheel The structure indicates the blank space or air s in the grinding wheel and it is designated with numbers 1-15, where 1 is dense and 15 is open.

You have to select the grinding wheel with a combination of the above and the combination depends on two factors- one is material (including hardness) to be ground and the other is the rate of material removal.

Your external grinder wheel diameter can be 300 to 500 or more with the corresponding width and bore suitable for clamping flanges; the surface speed of the grinding wheel can be 40- 45 meters per second (peripheral speed) or more.

You have to select the size of the internal grinding wheel from the manufacturer’s chart and the size depends on the diameter of the bore to be ground.

Your CNC External Cylindrical Grinder uses both straight and angular type grinding wheels.

Before using a new grinding wheel, you must do the inspection of the wheel (including ring test), balancing, and dressing.

For successful Cylindrical Grinding operation, choice of the grinding wheel, speed of the grinding wheel, and relative speed of the work-piece is important and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines in this matter.

Cutting Fluid

When you work on your Cylindrical Grinding Machine, the surface of the work-piece in contact with the grinding wheel develops considerable heat.

The cooling system of your machine cools the work-piece, reduces the effect of friction, removes heat from the work-zone, and increases rate-of-material-removal, without further damage to the work-piece surface finish.

The most commonly used grinding fluids in your machine are water-based emulsions and grinding oils.

Since the grinding process in your machine produces a lot of heat, flooding the coolant at the point of cut is most effective; the quantity of the coolant depends on the length of contact between the grinding wheel and the work-piece, larger the contact area more should be the quantity of coolant.


If you can work on a cylindrical grinder, you will be considered as a skilled worker, because every machinist may not be comfortable working on a Cylindrical Grinder.

With the advent of CNC controlled cylindrical grinders, the requirement of the level of skill has come down.

Your Cylindrical Grinders are important and a must for every workshop, be it an automobile industry or a consumer product industry.


Building on the success of the robust Landis 3L, the Landis 3LVe is an evolutionary step forward, utilizing state-of-the-art technology to improve efficiency and reliability.

high-productivity cylindrical grinding machine

With over 500 installations of the original Landis 3L worldwide, the Landis 3LVe is an evolution of success. With an optimized design it provides unrivalled quality and cycle times at lower cost.

Multiple headstocks and footstocks, grinding wheel options and spindle varieties provide additional alternatives to the machine design. And of course, the increased flexibility does not come at the expense of productivity, reliability or product quality.

Check out our Landis 3LVe flyer to learn more.

Landis 3LVe to support the EV Industry: A large automotive OEM has selected Fives to manufacture a Landis 3LVe machine, to grind rotors and pinion shafts for their new Battery Electric Vehicle line. The evolution of the decades old partnership with this customer, is helping to catapult both organizations further in the transition of ICE to EV engines.


The modular platform enables you to configure the Landis 3LVe for plunge, angle approach, peel or orbital grinding. Additional features include:

  • Range of workdrive options for high torque orbital profile grinding or high-speed peel grinding
  • High power wheel spindles for high stock removal, wide plunge grinding or simultaneous lobe grinding. without compromising cycle time or quality
  • High-speed grinding wheel (200 m/s) to contour and finish the workpiece when peel grinding

Enhanced grinding accuracy optimized cycle times

A precision finish is ensured with linear guideways, ceramic bearing wheel spindles, and an infinitely variable B-axis. To further enhance grinding accuracy, CBN grinding wheels, CNC variable speed drive and a high precision C-axis encoder are also available.

In addition, high-powered spindles (50 kW, even with three-spindle configuration) and integral automation options, help to optimize cycle times and minimize parasitic time for high-volume productivity. The machine is also easily accessible for simple maintenance, reducing downtime and the health and safety risks to operators.

check out the Landis 3LVe in action

Landis 3LVe. High Productivity Cylindrical Grinder

The Landis 3LVe provides high quality and cycle times an unrivaled value. The modular platform enables you to configure the Landis 3LVe for plunge, angle approach, peel, or orbital grinding.


Workhead spindle motor power

Workhead spindle motor torque

Precision linear guideways

common, cylindrical, grinding, defects, machine

Super precision ceramic bearing

High precision ball screw

Machine dimensions (W x D x H)

SMTW Cylindrical Grinders — Manual

Shaping the outside of an object with a central axis of rotation, our SMTW manual cylindrical grinders work on cylinders, ellipses, cams, or crankshafts.

Designed for large rolls and shaft-type work, these GM manual cylindrical grinders are the largest of our grinders. These industrial machines are used for steel, paper, aviation, automotive, and military applications.

Built with a heavy-aged cast iron frame, our manual cylindrical grinders by SMTW are precision machined and hand-scraped. Equipped with a hydro-dynamic spindle and a hydrostatic lubrication system on the table and wheelhead ways, our manual series delivers control and versatility.

You can expect reliable function for many years of trouble-free operation along with high accuracy machining.

SMTW GM Series. Manual Grinding Machines

GM20 GM25


Designed for large rolls and shaft-type work, the SMTW GM series of manual cylindrical grinders are some of the largest machines we offer.

With a history of reliability for the steel and paper industry, these high-precision grinders have also been used for the manufacturing of exotic rolls.

With dead centers, these durable machines provide high levels of repeatability accuracy. A step pulley drive system designed for the work head provides six variable speeds.

common, cylindrical, grinding, defects, machine

A pick feed can also be used to feed on either end of the traverse or both ends along with a variable feed adjuster. As it is a manual machine, the wheel head is retracted by actuating the handle on the feed.

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