Online class or flipped-jigsaw learning? Which one promotes academic motivation during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Due to the progress in COVID-19, education has undergone a huge change all around the world, leading all universities to move towards distance learning. In this context, the majority of instructors tend to make use of the educational methods that maintain and improve students’ motivation and, consequently, promote their academic performance. This study aimed to compare the effects of synchronous online class and the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods on students’ academic motivation.
This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 84 BSc nursing students who had entered Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in two different years. One group was educated in a synchronous online class, while the other group was educated using a combination of flipped and jigsaw methods. Both classes were enrolled in online classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants’ academic motivation was evaluated using Harter’s Academic Motivation Scale.
The results revealed no significant difference in the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of academic motivation in the synchronous online class group before and after the intervention. However, a significant increase was observed in the mean scores of academic motivation (p = 0.002) and its intrinsic (p = 0.003) and extrinsic (p = 0.031) dimensions in the flipped-jigsaw method group after the intervention. over, the mean scores of academic motivation (p = 0.007) and its intrinsic (p = 0.038) and extrinsic (p = 0.010) dimensions were significantly higher in the flipped-jigsaw method group compared to the synchronous online class group after the intervention.
Since the COVID-19 pandemic has led educational institutions to use virtual education methods, the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods may improve students’ academic motivation in distance learning.
COVID-19 is a viral disease, against which no one is safe [1, 2]. In order to control the prevalence of this disease, governments had to close educational institutions temporarily, which affected 91% of the student population around the world . In other words, this disease resulted in a huge change in teaching and learning . Nevertheless, one of the main stimulants that maintain students’ stability and effort in the learning process and ultimately contribute to their success in the education process is motivation . Experts have divided motivation into two main groups, namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which are related to learning and academic motivation . In intrinsic motivation, individuals show some behaviors in order to achieve the sense of competence and determine their faith. Behaviors derived from intrinsic motivation take place in such circumstances as overcoming challenges and reducing incompatibilities or on the basis of environmental conditions . Extrinsic motivation is created due to external incentives and rewards . For example, the existence of specified rules and regulations may result in behaviors originating from extrinsic motivation . Psychologists have stated that motivation should be taken into consideration in education due to its relationship with learning. They have also presented academic motivation as one of the primary structures for defining this type of motivation . In fact, motivation acts as a stimulus for learners for completion of a task, attaining an aim, and achieving a high degree of competence in their professions . Great attention has been paid to academic motivation in the studies carried out on teaching and learning around the globe . Evidence has indicated that higher motivation of students resulted in their greater attempts in difficult affairs as well as their resistance in the face of obstacles, which improved their skills and promoted their scientific performance . Furthermore, academic motivation was associated with educational progress among medical students and was effective in their educational achievements . Overall, the required energy for carrying out the academic tasks was produced by motivation .
Teaching methodology is one of the strategies for creation of motivation and promotion of learning. Since instructors play the key role in the teaching-learning process, they need to have sufficient knowledge about new teaching methods in order to be able to teach appropriately on the basis of learners’ capabilities .
The Internet is one of the most important technologies used in almost all dimensions of human life, particularly education. This technology is also utilized for distance learning, particularly online education that is one of the prominent virtual education methods . Considering the closure of educational institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic, online education is expanding vastly . This method is used either synchronously or asynchronously . In synchronous online classes, instructors carry out their teaching-learning activities using such software programs as Zoom, Adobe Connect, Minerva, and Blackboard in real time . It should also be noted that learners have freedom in action, speed, and path of learning in electronic learning environments, which can enhance their motivation . According to the results of a study, online classes exerted positive impacts on learners’ academic motivation .
Flipped classroom is yet another new teaching methodology resulted from progresses in the field of education. This method is a combination of traditional and digital performances . In this method, out-of-class activities like assignments are transferred into the class and the activities carried out in the class are transferred out of the class . In other words, flipped classroom encourages individuals to learn the educational content at home and practice at school . Some researchers have disclosed that this method enhanced students’ responsibility, sense of belonging to a group, interactions, and motivation . Some studies also revealed that flipped classrooms had a positive effect on students’ academic motivation . However, other studies demonstrated that flipped classrooms had no effects on academic motivation .
Nowadays, working in teams and networks is important for solving complicated problems. Therefore, collaborative learning methods have attracted a lot of attention . Jigsaw is one of the collaborative learning methods, in which learners take the responsibility for a part of a task in small predefined groups. Each group member studies the intended issue and then, the members of various teams who have had the responsibility for a similar part create a special group and discuss the intended issue. After that, each member goes back to their groups and teaches the other members . Since learners make attempts and interact for a shared goal, their motivation increases in comparison to competition-based settings . Rachmah considered the jigsaw method as an effective way to improve students’ academic motivation . Nonetheless, another study showed no improvements in the students’ academic motivation by using the jigsaw method .
As mentioned earlier, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused numerous challenges in teaching-learning affairs. In this context, instructors try to find methods to maintain and improve students’ motivation, thereby promoting their academic performance. Based on the studies conducted on the issue, online learning [30, 31] and flipped classroom [32, 33] are amongst the most widely-used virtual education methods. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods, the combination of flipped classroom and jigsaw method was investigated as a new method in the present study. This study aimed to explore the effects of synchronous online classes and the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods on students’ academic motivation.
Study design and setting
This quasi-experimental study was conducted on two groups of BSc nursing students in School of Nursing and Midwifery affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, two online class methods were compared in terms of their impacts on students’ academic motivation.
The BSc nursing students who had entered Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in September and January 2019–2020 and had passed the nursing concepts course were selected through census. The inclusion criteria of the study were being a BSc student at the second semester of nursing at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and being willing to take part in the research. The exclusion criteria of the study were not completing the questionnaires and being absent for more than one session.
All students who had entered the university in September and January 2019–2020 were enrolled into the study. Totally, 48 students had entered the university in September, 42 ones of whom were willing to cooperate. On the other hand, 55 students had entered the university in January, 47 ones of whom were willing to participate in the research.
This study was conducted online with the cooperation of the virtual college of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In order to allocate the classes into two educational methods, the names of the two classes were written on two pieces of paper and they were put in a bag. It was decided that the first piece of paper taken out of the bag would be allocated to the synchronous online class. A person who had no role in the research brought one of the pieces of paper out and, accordingly, the students entering the university in September 2020 were enrolled into the synchronous online class and those entering the university in January were allocated to the combined methods group.
Prior to the intervention, the students in the synchronous online class were provided with some information regarding the research procedures and their electronic informed consent forms were obtained. Out of the 48 students in this group, 42 were willing to take part in the study. Demographic and academic motivation questionnaires were electronically sent to the students before the intervention. It should be noted that the students who did not take part in the study passed the course offline. The basic concepts of nursing were taught using Adobe Connect software through nine sessions in synchronous online classes. In doing so, the instructor (corresponding author) shared the related slides in the software and taught the materials online. It should be mentioned that two students were excluded from this group because of repeated absences. After the end of the nine education sessions, the 40 students were required to complete the Academic Motivation Scale again (Fig. 1).
In the flipped-jigsaw group, the students were provided with some explanations about the study procedure and their electronic informed consent forms were obtained. Out of the 55 students, 47 were willing to cooperate. The students who were not willing to take part in the research passed the course offline. Before the intervention, demographic and academic motivation questionnaires were sent to the students electronically. In this group, instruction was carried out using a combination of flipped and jigsaw methods for nine sessions. In doing so, a video clip of the intended subject together with some questions were uploaded on the E-learning management system by the instructor (corresponding author) a week prior to each education session. Thus, the students could prepare themselves by watching the video clip or reviewing other resources such as the electronic book by Brunner and Suddarth, 2018  during the week. In each education session, the students were divided into groups of five or six. Each member of the group was assigned a specific topic. They were required to study the whole material, with a closer look at the assigned topic. During the online classes, the students who had similar assigned items entered their joint groups using ‘breakout’ in Adobe Connect software and discussed the points for 20 min. Meanwhile, the instructor monitored the students and answered their questions. After 20 min, the students entered the main group of the class. Then, in order to improve the online work process, one of the students on behalf of their joint groups provided the class with the final summary of the material. In the end, the instructor answered the students’ questions and provided them with a summary. It should be noted that three students were excluded from this group because of repeated absences. After the end of the nine sessions, the Academic Motivation Scale was completed by the 44 students (Fig. 1). It should also be noted that the students in both groups were followed up using WhatsApp. In addition, calling the roll was done electronically using Adobe Connect software and the students’ activities were recorded. Furthermore, the students were able to ask the instructor their questions or problems through the E-learning management system or WhatsApp.
The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (IR.SUMS.REC.1399.454). All necessary permissions for conducting the research were obtained from the relevant authorities and all methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. Furthermore, a session was held after the selection of the participants for explaining the study objectives and procedures. Online informed consent forms were also taken from all the participants.
The study data were collected using a demographic information form and Harter’s Academic Motivation Scale. The demographic information form included age, sex, and Grade Point Average (GPA).
Academic motivation was evaluated using Harter’s Academic Motivation Scale, which was designed in 1981. This questionnaire measures academic motivation using dichotomous questions, one of whose options involves intrinsic motivation and the other involves extrinsic motivation. Harter noted that “situations can be imagined in which internal interest and external rewards, in cooperation with each other, stimulate learning” [35, 36]. This questionnaire was modified by Leper et al. in 2005. In the modified questionnaire, separate questions were designed for intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. This form consisted of 33 items assessing intrinsic (n = 17) and extrinsic (n = 16) motivations [36, 37]. Intrinsic motivation refers to the satisfaction with and joy of learning (e.g., ‘I ask questions in the class, because I want to learn new things’). Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, involves achieving positive outcomes and avoiding negative learning outcomes (e.g., ‘When I make a mistake, I like to ask the teacher how to find the right answer’ . In other words, the activities individuals do for themselves are called intrinsic motivation, while the motivation derived from external outcomes is considered extrinsic motivation . The questionnaire items could be responded based on a Likert scale (never = 1, rarely = 2, sometimes = 3, usually = 4, and almost always = 5). Thus, the total score of the questionnaire could range from 33 to 165 . Lepper et al. confirmed the predictive validity of the modified scale through the significant correlation between intrinsic motivation and the instructor’s reports of intrinsic motivation. Significant correlations were also observed between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and their subscales and two objective indices of academic progress; i.e., course scores and academic progress scores. Additionally, the test-retest coefficient was found to be 0.74 for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations . In Harter’s study, the reliability coefficients of the two subscales ranged from 0.54 to 0.84 using the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula. In addition, the reliability coefficients ranged from 0.48 to 0.63 in a sample during a nine-month period and from 0.58 to 0.76 in another sample during 5 months . In Iran, the reliability and validity of this scale were approved by Behroozi. In that study, the validity of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.72 for intrinsic motivation and 0.71 for extrinsic motivation . In another study also, the reliability of the scale was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79 .
The normality of the data was assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Accordingly, all demographic data and other study variables followed normal distribution. Descriptive statistics were used for the demographic data and the variables were reported as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage. Independent t-test and chi-square test were applied for comparing the two groups regarding the demographic variables. over, the pre- and post-intervention scores were compared in the two groups via paired t-test. Finally, ANCOVA was used to compare the differences between the two groups’ scores.
This study was conducted on 40 students in the synchronous online class and 44 ones in the flipped-jigsaw group. As Table 1 shows, there were more female students in both groups (52.5% in the synchronous online class and 52.3% in the flipped-jigsaw group). In the synchronous online group, the mean age of the students was 20.88 3.164 years and their mean GPA was 14.595 1.929. In the flipped-jigsaw group, the mean age of the students was 21.27 3.128 years and their mean GPA was 16.980 0.744. The results indicated that the groups were homogeneous with regard to age and sex, but were significantly different regarding GPA (p 0.001) (Table 1). As the GPA was different between the two groups, ANCOVA was used for between-group comparisons.
The results showed no significant difference between the two groups concerning the mean scores of academic motivation and its intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions before the intervention (Table 2). In the synchronous online group, no significant increase was observed in the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of academic motivation after the intervention. However, a significant increase was found in the mean scores of academic motivation (p = 0.002) and its intrinsic (p = 0.003) and extrinsic (p = 0.031) dimensions in the flipped-jigsaw group after the intervention. Furthermore, the results of ANCOVA indicated that the mean scores of academic motivation (p = 0.007) and its intrinsic (p = 0.038) and extrinsic (p = 0.010) dimensions were significantly higher in the flipped-jigsaw group compared to the synchronous online class after the intervention.
Table.2 Comparison of the two groups regarding the mean scores of academic motivation and its dimensions
This study aimed to compare the effects of two common educational methods on students’ academic motivation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results demonstrated that the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods had a more positive effect on the students’ academic motivation and its dimensions compared to the synchronous online class.
The findings indicated that the two groups were homogeneous regarding sex and age. However, the mean GPA was higher in the flipped-jigsaw group compared to the synchronous online class. This might be due to the fact that the participants were selected from the students who had entered the university in different years. In case the participants had been selected from a group of students entering the university in the same year, they would have had the opportunity to interact with each other, which could eventually affect the study results. over, in this case, the students had to be divided into two very small groups. Another reason for the difference in GPA was that all the students had to pass this course in the second semester, which could make a difference in the two groups’ GPAs over time.
The results revealed a significant increase in the mean scores of academic motivation and its intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions in the flipped-jigsaw group after the intervention. However, this was not the case in the synchronous online class. Furthermore, a significant change was observed in the students’ academic motivation in the flipped-jigsaw group compared to the synchronous online class after the intervention. Mohammad stated that motivation played an important role in learning. Accordingly, lack of motivation would be accompanied by no learning activity . Hence, motivation could be considered an important factor in raising the level of success . The results of a previous study indicated that the increase in the number of online sessions, lack of facilities (such as adequate Internet networks), and cost of online classes were effective factors in reducing academic motivation amongst students . In the present study, the students in the synchronous online class only listened to the educational content at the same time, and the teacher-centeredness of the training sessions reduced the students’ interactions with each other as well as with the teacher. These conditions eventually decreased the students’ motivation in the synchronous online class. In contrast, Dliss and Sukur reported that the students who were able to use online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic were more motivated compared to those who could not benefit from online education . The findings of a prior study demonstrated that due to students’ readiness before beginning of the class, division of tasks that takes place at home and in the classroom, and attractiveness of the method, the flipped classroom method was effective in improving students’ academic motivation . Allocating time to interactive activities, increasing learners’ interest and participation, giving students the responsibility for learning, and having access to educational materials at any time of the day can also be mentioned as other factors in promoting academic motivation . In another study, the Jigsaw teaching method was found to be effective in increasing nursing students’ academic motivation due to being challenging and providing the ground for discussion among students . In the present study, the flipped-jigsaw method was effective in increasing academic motivation due to being student-centered, helping the students be sufficiently prepared before entering the classroom that gave them a feeling of security, giving responsibility to the students, placing students in small groups that enhanced their interaction with each other as well as with the teacher, and being attractive and challenging. Generally, existence of competition for high grades, assignments, and student-centered activities can be effective in promoting students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation . In the present study, the flipped-jigsaw method was more effective in promoting the aforementioned points in comparison to the synchronous online class, which ultimately led to the improvement of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation scores amongst the students. A previous research revealed that intrinsic motivation was more effective in academic achievement compared to extrinsic motivation . The present study findings showed that the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods promoted motivation in the students. Accordingly, a significant increase was observed in both intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions among the students in the flipped-jigsaw class, but not among those in the synchronous online class. Therefore, this combined method that was effective in improving the students’ motivation was suitable for their academic progress.
One of the limitations of this study was that it could not be compared to the lecture method. Hence, future studies are recommended to compare the flipped-jigsaw method to the lecture method. Furthermore, the participants were selected from the students entering the university in different years so as to avoid interaction among the participants. Thus, further investigations are suggested to be performed on a large number of students entering a university in 1 year. However, one of the strengths of this study was that the two groups were in exactly the same situation, so that only education methods could make a difference.
Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions have had to make use of virtual education methods. This has resulted in a change in instructors’ teaching methods, which can be effective in students’ process of education. In this context, instructors make attempts to find methods for maintaining and improving students’ motivation, eventually promoting their academic performance. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the combination of flipped and jigsaw methods was more effective in improvement of the students’ academic motivation in comparison to the synchronous online class.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Jigsaw method of teaching
Students break into expert teams to learn one particular aspect of the content, so that they can teach peers in their base teams prior to producing a knowledge product, or participating in a knowledge check (quiz or discussion).
FROM JIGSAW.ORG: “The Jigsaw Classroom is a cooperative learning technique that reduces racial conflict among school children, promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning experience.”
VISIBLE LEARNING EFFECT SIZE: 1.2The Jigsaw Method, which has a fascinating history of development for class cohesion purposes in the 1970s, is one of the most effective strategies in the Visible Learning meta-analysis research of John Hattie.
THE WHEN WHAT FOR
WHEN TO USE IT: Surface lessons, Deep lessons, and potentially Transfer lessons (depending upon how it is structured and where it is placed in the unit). The cool thing about the Jigsaw Method is how versatile it is. SURFACE / BACKGROUND: The Jigsaw Method can be used to help students learn core content in the unit at an initial surface level. The way this works is that each student specializes in a “sub-area” of related content, and is accountable to teach the material to their peers. Peer instruction would be followed by an accountability knowledge check, in some form (ranging from a quiz to some type product students create that requires them to use the knowledge taught by their peers).
DEEP: Perhaps students have already learned surface level content (whether by direct instruction or some other method), and now go into Jigsaw groups in order to support a deep lesson objective, such as analysis (breaking down concepts into component parts) or evaluation (students might have different pieces of evidence, or different examples, that represent potential strengths or limitations of a concept that they are evaluating).
TRANSFER: Furthermore, there are many possible extensions. John Hattie, Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher (writing in Visible Learning for Science; Corwin, 2018) mention a next step in which students return to their expert teams and discuss how the different content components relate to one another (this can be an opportunity for moving from surface to deep learning or transfer learning). Base teams could also take the information learned in expert teams and combine it to solve a problem, apply the knowledge to make something new, or to create an interpretive project.
The important thing, as usual, is to understand what you want students to learn and be able to do as a result of the Jigsaw activity.
THE HOW SUPPORTING RESOURCES
You’re probably familiar with this method, which starts with 4, 5 or 6 students assigned to home groups. The students then break out into expert groups to double check their understanding and make sure they can teach the material to other students. Then they return to their home group and take turns teaching the material.
The part we often forget is the next one, but it’s arguably the crucial part: check every student’s understanding of every important piece of content (whether with a quiz or other method). The super helpful video summary by Jennifer Gonzalez ( Cult of Pedagogy ) provided above has some cool ideas about how to combine individual and group score aspects into the quiz / check finale of the Jigsaw lesson.
Jigsaw method of teaching
In the 1970s, Dr Elliot Aronson developed the jigsaw technique in an effort to reduce inequality and resistance to ethnic…
In the 1970s, Dr Elliot Aronson developed the jigsaw technique in an effort to reduce inequality and resistance to ethnic differences in American public schools.
The jigsaw technique is a cooperative learning method where groups and projects are divided among smaller groups so members need to rely on one another to complete the jigsaw.
What is a Jigsaw Classroom? | Benefits of the Jigsaw Technique | Teachmint
This method not only helped students enjoy their classroom activities but also work well with fellow students. They approached their classmates more positively, helping them complete their projects more efficiently.
Read on to discover how jigsaw learning methods can be effective in and outside the classroom.
The Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method
If you’ve ever seen a 1,000-piece puzzle, you probably know how hard it is to complete it alone. Each piece needs to fit perfectly for it to work. Now you can choose to work on this by yourself, it’ll just take you a lot longer and maybe even frustrate you to no end. But what if you ask your friends or family to help you out? Not only will it make the activity a lot more fun but you’ll also find it easier to complete the task.
The jigsaw technique is based on a similar principle. Say you’re teaching a class of 30 students. Your students are very antsy and they don’t seem to get along all that well. What you can do is first divide them into six groups of five. Then, take a project like making a model solar system and give each group different tasks like crafting the sun, planets, asteroids, comets and other components. They’ll have to work with one another so they can combine their efforts to create the solar system. Each student group will be armed with specific knowledge which they’ll share with the rest of the classroom.
In the jigsaw learning strategy, tasks are created as parts of a whole to help students learn from one another, cooperate and collaborate with their group and other students. It helps them get a deeper understanding of the task or material so they can execute their ideas with confidence.
Advantages Of The Jigsaw Method
If you can teach what you’ve learned, you have mastered the concepts. The jigsaw technique encourages students and participants to get a thorough understanding of the training material. It may be used in a classroom or for employee training efforts.
In a professional setting, when it comes to teamwork and collaboration, many activities like trust circles and case studies depend on the jigsaw learning method. Organizations may incorporate these activities to encourage you to seek help from others, make room for different perspectives and teach yourself in the process.
Here are some advantages of jigsaw strategies:
- As a cooperative learning technique, the jigsaw method works in situations where participants are unwilling to cooperate with others
- The jigsaw learning technique positively reinforces the benefits of teamwork and collaboration to get work done on time
- In a conflict situation, where teammates or classmates don’t get along or aren’t on the same page, an effort to bring them together to work on a task will help them break these barriers to collaboration
- It encourages conversation and brainstorming so that participants can share their ideas freely without feeling judged
- It establishes a self-teaching and self-learning environment where in the process of teaching others, participants are able to clarify their doubts and get a good grasp of the material
Research suggests that a jigsaw method can help participants with low self-esteem, develop academic sensibilities and encourage positive attitudes toward others. Each member gets to participate, communicate their expectations and raise their concerns. This creates a wholesome and healthy learning environment.
Jigsaw strategies can be used both in a professional and academic scenario. In a professional context, skills like teamwork and leadership are significant for organizational success. If you want to learn how to leverage your skills and strengths at work, Harappa’s Managing Teamwork will teach you how!
Our course has been designed for individuals who want to learn about navigating different work styles, understanding their teammates and maximizing their team’s strengths. Frameworks like the GRIN (Goals-Roles-Interdependence-Norms) framework and the Bruce Tuckman Model will teach you how to build effective teams. Enroll today to become a reliable team player.
Explore topics such as What Is Cooperative Learning. Functions Of Management. What Is Teamwork and Important Management Skills from Harappa Diaries to become a well-rounded professional.
The Impact of Jigsaw Method on Developing CL Cooperative Learning in 6 Steps
Cooperative learning is one of the successful methods of teaching that enhances critical thinking, problem-solving, and reasoning skills. over, it encourages the learners to be more dependant and use their language effectively.
Jigsaw: Management in the Active Classroom
One of the strategies that are considered one of the simplest methods to encourage students to work cooperatively and productively is the Jigsaw method. This article shows how to use the Jigsaw method and the basic structure of the Jigsaw and then the variation known as Jigsaw. Besides, the article gives some tips for troubleshooting this strategy.
What is the Jigsaw Method?
Elliot Aronson invented the Jigsaw method in 1971. Jigsaw is a cooperative learning approach in which each student in a group is responsible for one chunk of knowledge and then teaches it to other members of the group. Students put their chunks together to produce a whole body of knowledge, much like the parts of a Jigsaw puzzle.
The first step is to divide learners into groups of four or six people. Jigsaw works best when each team has the same number of students, so the teacher can avoid having some groups of four, some groups of five, and some groups of six. You’ll learn what to do if you can’t divide students into perfectly even teams later in this article.
For this example, the teacher will suppose that he is working with a class of exactly 30 students who can be evenly divided into six groups. This is referred to as the Jigsaw Groups.
The topic is divided into four to six portions by the teacher.
The content must be divided into the same number of chunks as the number of students in each group. So, if each group has six students, the teacher divides the subject into six parts. In the case of teaching history, for example, the material is an overview of various systems of governance.
The subject can be divided into the following categories by the teacher: democracy, monarchy, republic, totalitarianism, and autocracy. The reader does not need to use the index cards that contain the information or symbolize the bits of content to complete the Jigsaw puzzle.A piece of a textbook chapter, a handout with information, or an internet resource can all be considered a chunk of material.
- Assign one piece of content to every person in the Jigsaw Group.
- One person per group is responsible for one piece of the content.
- This person is going to teach this piece of content to the rest of the group.
Students do not communicate with other members of their group at this time; instead, they read and study their piece of content on their own. The following stage strengthens their autonomous research.
After each student has separately studied his or her chunk, they join all of the other students who have been allocated to the same chunk. Expert Groups are what they’re called.
Students compare their thoughts and collaborate to make a presentation for their Jigsaw Groups within each expert group. Individual pupils’ knowledge gaps can be filled, misconceptions cleared, and crucial concepts reinforced at this period.
Students return to their original jigsaw groups after studying their chunks in expert groups, where each student has a turn delivering their chunk of material. While this is going on, the other students are paying attention, taking notes, and asking a lot of questions. After the first expert has left, the others have their turn. While each “expert” presents their portion of the topic, the rest of the group is learning it.
Assess all students on all the content.
A simple quiz can be used to ensure that all pupils have a basic comprehension of the topic. In this quiz, make sure to include all of the information blocks.
Jigsaw II is a variation on the basic structure of Jigsaw.
Jigsaw II, developed by Robert Slavin in 1986, adds one key feature to the original Jigsaw. The distinction is in how the evaluation is handled. In Jigsaw I, each student is evaluated independently and given a specific score. Individual quiz results are given once in Jigsaw II, and then the scores of each group are averaged to produce a group score. This instills a sense of competitiveness among groups and motivates students to go above and beyond in assisting one another in mastering the curriculum.
Here are a few tips for troubleshooting this strategy.
One problem you might encounter is this: What if students don’t divide evenly?You should now have a perfectly divisible group. But, as we all know, perfection rarely occurs, and even if it does, one absent student may throw your entire game off.
First, remember that you can create groups of 4,5, or 6 (and some jigsaw advocates even allow for groups of 2 or 3), so that should help minimize “extra” students. Still, if you end up with a few extras, just assign two students in the same group the same chunk.
What if certain “experts” don’t do a good job of teaching the material? If this group is relying on this one student to teach them about monarchs, and he isn’t the strongest, they may be in trouble. When constructing your groups, you can anticipate this issue. If you have an unbalanced number of students, one thing you may do is pair up two students on the same piece who might be stronger together than they would be alone. The expert group is also in charge of ensuring that everyone is ready to present their piece to their respective jigsaw groups. If one student is having trouble, make sure the rest of the class helps that student out.
Speak with an ITTT advisor today to put together your personal plan for teaching English abroad!
Send us an email or call us toll-free at 1-800-490-0531 to speak with an ITTT advisor today.